The Day of Atonement
Passage: Leviticus 16:1–16:34
"You will definitely have trouble seeing the glory of penal substitution if you have trouble admitting you’re a wrath-deserving sinner in need of atonement."(Jared Wilson)
There are two components to “atonement” God wants us to understand: expiation and propitiation. Through the sacrificial animal’s bloody death, God removed the worshipper’s sin (expiation) and God’s holy wrath against the Old Covenant worshipper and his sin was appeased (propitiation).
Main Idea: The only way of access into the presence of the Lord is by the application of the atoning blood on the “atonement cover” and the removal of the sins of the penitent by placing them on a scapegoat.
- God permits access into his presence only through his provision of atonement (16:1–5)
- Entering God’s presence cannot be taken lightly (16:1–2)
- God prescribes the preparation for entering his presence (16:3–5)
- God provides access into his presence by the sprinkling of blood on the atonement cover and by the complete removal of sin (16:6–28)
- Access to God requires full atonement (16:6–10)
- God prescribes the ritual of the atonement (16:11–28)
o Purification of the sanctuary by blood (16:11–19).
o Purification of the people through the removal of the scapegoat (16:20–22).
o The sacrifice of the burnt offerings and the cleansing of the participants (16:23–28).
- The people rest from their work (16:29-34)
New Testament Fulfillment
The righteous God presented Jesus as a “sacrifice of atonement” – a sacrifice which is both expiatory and propitiatory- to be received by faith (Romans 3:25a)